High manganese steel (HMS) was invented by British Hadfied in 1882 and it was successfully tested on the railway track. Because of good toughness and an enormous capacity for work-hardening upon impact, it is still widely used under high impact and strong wear conditions, such as railroad components crossings, rock-handling equipment, rolling mill wall and broken wall of cone crusher, liner of the wet-grinding machine, large crusher hammer and so on. It is applied to various industries based on various properties such as high strength, low temperature toughness, wear resistance, non-magnetic and damping property depending on components like Mn and C.
High manganese steels usually used include standard high manganese steel (GX100Mn13, GX110MnMo13-1, GX120MnCr13-2, GX120MnNi13-3, Mn: 11.0% to 14.0%), medium manganese steel (GX120MnMo7-1, C: 1.05% to 1.35%, Mn: 6% to 8%, Mo: 0.9% to 1.2%) and ultra-high manganese steel (GX120Mn18, GX120MnCr18-2, C: 1.05% to 1.35%, Mn: 16.0% to 19.0%) and GX90MnMo14 (C: 0.70% to 1.0%, Mn: 13.0% to 15.0%, Mo: 1.0% to 1.8%). The typical Mn18 ultra-high manganese steel is obtained by increasing the manganese content on the basis of Mn13, which improves the stability of austenite, prevents the precipitation of carbides, and thus improves the strength and plasticity of steel and the work hardening of steel. Ultra-high manganese steel is also used in thick castings that require high toughness. Medium manganese steel is used in places with low impact.